Showing posts from May, 2021


A variable resistor with three pins. Two of the pins are connected to the ends of a fixed resistor. The middle pin is connected to a wiper that moves across the resistor. This divides the resistor into two parts. These components are often referred to as pots and are used to adjust the voltage in a circuit. The volume knob on a radio is an example of a pot. A potentiometer is a simple mechanical device that provides a varying amount of resistance when its shaft is turned. By passing voltage through a potentiometer and into an analog input on your board, it is possible to measure the amount of resistance produced by a potentiometer (or pot for short) as an analog value. When the shaft is turned all the way in one direction, there are 0 volts going to the pin, and the input value is 0. When the shaft is turned all the way in the opposite direction, there are 5 volts going to the pin and the input value is 1023. In between, analogRead() returns a number between 0 and


Battery Snap is used to connect a 9 V battery to power leads. The red wire will be connected to the positive terminal of the battery and the black wire will be connected to the negative terminal.


The Arduino UNO board consists of several inter-connected components. The hardware components on the board are controlled by software (a program that tells the hardware what to do). This program is stored on the UNO’s microcontroller. A microcontroller is a chip that acts like a small computer. It consists of a CPU, RAM, ROM, input and output, and a timer.


Capacitor is a component that stores and releases electrical energy in a circuit. Capacitors are often placed across power and ground close to a sensor or motor. The ability of a capacitor to store electrical energy is called Capacitance and is measured in farad (F) . The capacitance of most capacitors are in the range microfarad (0.000001 farads) to picofarad (0.000000000001 farads) . A component that stores and releases electrical energy in a circuit. When the circuit’s voltage is higher than what is stored in the capacitor, it allows current to flow in, giving the capacitor a charge. When the circuit’s voltage is lower, the stored charge is released. Capacitors are measured in farads. One farad is a lot of capacitance, so most capacitors are in the microfarad (0.000001 farads) or even picofarad (0.000000000001 farads) range. Capacitors are often placed across power and ground close to a sensor or motor to help smooth changes in voltage.


Using Breadboard you can easily build electronic circuits. It consists of rows of holes that allow you to connect wires and components together. Each hole on the breadboard contains a metal connector that pinches wires when inserted into the holes. This helps keep the wires from pulling out and gives the circuit secure connections. This type of breadboard is called as a solderless breadboard and are widely used for creating electronic prototypes.


Jumper wires are used to connect components with each other on the breadboard and to the Arduino board. It consists of two parts: The Inner Part (Conductor) : is a metal wire that conducts electricity. The Outer Part (Insulator) : has a very high resistance and prevents the conductive wires from touching.


Piezo Buzzer is a component that is used to create sounds and melodies.


Light Emitting Diode (LED) is a component that emits light when current passes through it. It has two terminals (leads/wires): Anode (long) Cathode (short) They allow current to flow in one direction (anode to cathode). Therefore, the anode should be connected to the positive terminal and the cathode should be connected to the negative terminal. They come in different shapes, sizes, and colors and are often used as indicators on electronic devices. On some LEDs, the cathode side of the LED has a flat edge.


Phototransistor is a component that generates a current based on the amount of light falling on it.


Longer jumper wire that is usually used to provide power and ground from the Arduino board to the breadboard.


A switch that closes the circuit when pressed. When released, the circuit becomes open again. Push buttons are used as input devices and allow the Arduino board to detect on/off signals.


A component that resists the flow of electrical energy. As a result, resistors change the voltage and current in the circuit. Resistor values are measured in ohms (represented by the Greek letter omega: Ω). The colored stripes on the resistor indicate its resistance value and tolerance. Resistors usually have two wire leads, one in each end. Electricity can flow either direction through a resistor, which means that resistors can face either direction in a circuit. A resistor is an electrical component that resists the flow of electrons and helps control the amount of current flowing through the circuit. Resistors work by converting certain amounts of electrical energy to heat by creating resistance in the circuit. The value of a resistor indicates how much resistance will be added to the circuit. Recall that resistance is measured in ohms. A 220-ohm resistor will add 220 ohms of resistance to the circuit. A 10-megohm (10 MΩ) resistor will add 10,000,000 ohms of resistance to a circ


A type of geared motor that can only rotate up to 180 degrees. It is controlled by electrical pulses sent from the Arduino board. The pulses tell the motor what position to move to.


A cable that allows you to connect your Arduino board to a computer. This allows you to write, compile, and transfer programs to the Arduino board. The USB cable also provides power to the Arduino board.


A diode is a polarized electrical device. That means it allows electricity to flow in only one direction.


A battery is a type of electrical device called a power source. Power sources provide electrical current that can be used in a circuit. Besides providing current to a circuit, batteries also store energy that can be used to push the current through a circuit. A battery uses a chemical reaction to supply electric potential energy. Potential energy just means that the energy is stored for later use. Other types of power sources convert energy from one form into electric potential energy. For example, hydroelectric dams convert water pressure, wind turbines convert wind energy, and solar panels convert sunlight into electric potential energy. Voltage is the measure of potential energy. To be more specific, voltage is a measure of the difference in electric potential energy between two points. For a battery, those two points are the battery terminals. A battery has two terminals, a positive terminal and a negative terminal. The terminals are marked on the battery with a + sign and a - si